Colombia , officially the Republic of Colombia , is a republic in northwestern South America. It consists in a social and democratic state of law whose form of government is presidential . It is politically organized into 32 decentralized departments and a Capital District . The capital of the republic is Bogotá.
The area of Colombia is 2,129,748 km ² , of which 1,141,748 km ² correspond to the mainland and the remaining 988,000 km ² to its maritime extension , 9 which maintains a border dispute with Venezuela and Nicaragua . Bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil , to the south by Ecuador and Peru and to the northwest by Panama ; regarding maritime boundaries , borders Panama , Costa Rica , Nicaragua , Honduras , Jamaica , Haiti, Dominican Republic and Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea , and Panama , Costa Rica and Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean .
Colombia is the only South American country with coastlines on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea , which has several islands the Archipelago of San Andrés , Providencia and Santa Catalina. Colombia has the largest number of species per unit area on the planet, in total it is the second most mega-diverse in the world after Brazil , which is the most extensive country Colombia .
The country is the fourth largest nation in land area in South America, with about 47 million inhabitants, the third largest population in Latin America. It is the third country with the largest number of Spanish speakers . Colombia has a multicultural population, regions and races. Its population is mostly a result of interbreeding between Europeans, Indians and Africans, with minorities of indigenous and African descent. In the Colombian Caribbean is a significant number of descendants of the Middle Oriente.16 Gross domestic product at purchasing power parity of Colombia ranked fourth in Latin America and the 28th worldwide.